Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology.

  • Phoenix – Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. For more information on Phoenix, please contact Leon Clarke (, Ian Sue-Wing (, or Karen Fisher-Vanden (
  • Global Change Assessment Model – The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a partial equilibrium model of the world with 32 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2100 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 283-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of  assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) , the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. See GCAM Community. For more information, contact Pralit Patel ( or Leon Clarke (
  • EPIC – (aka WinEPIC) The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling. For more information, contact Cesar Izaurralde (