Renewable Energy Policy in Germany | Notes

  1. See, for example: Mischa Bechberger and Danyel Reiche, “Renewable Energy Policy in Germany: Pioneering and Exemplary Regulations,” Energy for Sustainable Development Vol. VIII, No. 1 (March 2004); Andreas Wagner, “Building on Success: Germany’s New Renewable Energy Law,” Foerdergesellschaft Windnergie available from www.climnet.org/news/EEG.htm; and Thomas B. Johannson and Wim Turkenburg, “Policies for Renewable Energy in the European Union and Its Member States: An Overview,” Energy for Sustainable Development VOl. VIII, No. 1 (March 2004), 12.
  2. Total electricity consumption in Germany was 581 TWh in 2002; renewable sources accounted for 44.3 TWh or 7.6% of total electricity consumption. See: Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, “Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen: Nationale und Internationale Entwicklungen,” November 2003, p. 12.
  3. Bundesverband Windenergie, “Kostentwicklung von Windanlagen in Deutschland,” available from www.wind-energie.de/informationen/informationen.htm.
  4. U.S. Department of energy, Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Brief: Germany,” available from http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/germany.html. Note that the “Other Renewables” category consists of biomass predominantly. Note also that Germany both imports and exports electricity. Net imports vary from year to year and are considered in calculating total consumption.
  5. Sources: Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit, Energie Daten 2003: Nationale und Internationale Entwicklungen, available from http://www.bmwa.bund.de/bmwa/generator/Navigation/Service/bestellservice,did=13782.html; and Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft, “Weiniger Stromimporte,” available from http://www.strom.de/wysstr/stromwys.nsf/. The author calculated German electricity consumption by adding net imports/subtracting net exports to gross electricity production for the years 1991-2002. In Figure 1, net imports and exports are reflected in the conventional generation category only. Considering that Germany has been a net power exporter for most of the years shown, Figure 1 may slightly understate the growth of conventionally-generated electricity and/or slightly overstate the growth of renewables.
  6. The German government combines renewable energy and energy efficiency programs (termed “rational energy use” in Europe) in a single administrative and budget category. Thus, the data line shown in Figure 2 reflects trends in both renewable energy and energy efficiency R&D. Note also that hydrogen and fuel cell R&D programs, which are categorized as fossil energy R&D programs in some countries, are also included in the German renewable energy R&D budget.
  7. Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung, available from http://www.bmbf.de.
  8. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit, http://www.bmwi.de.
  9. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit, “Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien, Stand August 2003.”
  10. Paul J. Runci, “Energy R&D in Germany” Joint Global Change Research Institute Working Paper, PNWD-3473 (July 2004).
  11. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, “Sustainable Energy Policy to Meet the Needs of the Future,” (2002), 9.
  12. Ruediger K.W. Wurzel, “The Europeanization of German Environmental Policy: From Environmental Leader to Member State Under Pressure,” Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltpolitik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, FFU-report 09-2002 (2002), 3.
  13. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, “Sustainable Energy Policy to Meet the Needs of the Future,” (2002), 7.
  14. GROWIAN is an acronym for “Grosse Wind Anlage” or “large wind system.”
  15. Heiner Doerner/Universitaet Stuttgart, “Der schon historischer Windenergiekonverter GROWIAN,” available from http://www.ifb.uni-stuttgart.de/~doerner/GROWIAN.html.
  16. Mischa Bechberger and Danyel Reiche, “Renewable Energy Policy in Germany: Pioneering and Exemplary Regulations,” Energy for Sustainable Development Vol. VIII, No. 1 (March 2004), p. 50.
  17. The EEG guarantees renewable energy producers premium prices for the power they generate. For example, wind turbines are granted a premium price of 9 Euro cents per kWh for the first five years of operation. Thereafter, site quality is evaluated against predefined performance standards. If a site yields at least 150% of the standard, then the guaranteed tariff drops to 6 Euro cents/kWh. For sites yielding less than 150%, the 9 cent rate is extended by two months for every 0.75% that the yield falls below the 150% mark. By this formulation, weaker sites are compensated at a rate that ensures continued operation, while stronger sites are not over-compensated. These higher rates also provides incentives for the development of inland sites that are less windy than coastal areas and allow inland wind developers access to credit that would otherwise not be available. See: Paul Gipes, “German Electricity Feed Law Policy Overview,” available from http://www.wind-works.org
  18. Bechberger and Reiche, 52-53; Andreas Wagner, “Germany’s New Renewable Energy Law,” available from www.climnet.org/news/EEF.htm.
  19. Bechberger and Reiche, 52.
  20. H.J. de Vries, Bechberger and Reiche, 54.
  21. Bechberger and Reiche, 50.
  22. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), “Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen – Stand Maerz 2003,” available from http://www.bmu.de/files/erneuerbare_energien_zahlen.pdf
  23. The author made this rough estimate of the ratio of deployment-to-R&D funding based on the German government data presented in this paper in Figure 1 and Table 3.
  24. European Commission, “Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy” White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan COM (97) 599 final (26/11/97), 10.
  25. Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliement and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, OJ L 283 27.10.2001, 33-34.
  26. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), “Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen – Stand Maerz 2003,” available from http://www.bmu.de/files/erneuerbare_energien_zahlen.pdf.
  27. Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliement and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, OJ L 283 27.10.2001, 39. While each EU member state was required to set national targets for renewable energy, it does not mandate explicit sanctions for those countries that fail to meet their targets.
  28. European Commission, “Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy” White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan COM (97) 599 final (26/11/97), 4-5.
  29. Rolf Linkohr, “Europas zunehmende Abhängigkeit von Energieimporten und seine Antwort darauf,” available from http://www.linkohr.de/2002_04_27.htm.
  30. European Commission, “Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy” White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan COM (97) 599 final (26/11/97), 5.
  31. Artem Agoulnik, “A New OPEC in the Making?,” Washington Post 20 October 2004, A27.
  32. European Commission, “Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy” White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan COM (97) 599 final (26/11/97), 4.
  33. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, “Entwicklung der Erneuerbaren Energien,” (Januar 2002), 7-8.
  34. Gerard Braunthal , Parties and Politics in Modern Germany (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996), 89-90.
  35. Thomas Scharf, The German Greens: Challenging the Consensus (Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd., 1994), 1-2.
  36. Christopher S. Allen (ed.), Transformation of the German Political Party System: Institutional Crisis or Democratic Renewal (New York: Berghahn Books, 1999), 133.
  37. See Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit, “Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie,” available from http://www.bmwi.de/Navigation/Technologie-und-Energie/Energiepolitik/kernenergie-konsens.html
  38. European Commission, “Action on Climate Change Post 2012: A Stakeholder Consultation on the EU’s Contribution to Shaping the Future Global Climate Change Regime,” available from http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/future_action.htm.
  39. Carbon capture and storage is an emerging technology area that several countries are exploring as a potential means of facilitating continued use of fossil fuels with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In Germany, however, the environmental uncertainties surrounding carbon sequestration have prompted ethical and technical debates. The German government does not sponsor carbon capture research and it appears that sequestration technologies are not envisioned as contributing to Germany’s efforts to reduce energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.
  40. See Bechberger and Reiche, 55; “Die Foerderung der Wind Energie Wird Verringert,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 15 November 2003, 15; “17 Milliarden Euro fuer die Steinkohle,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 13 November 2003, 13.
  41. “17 Milliarden Euro fuer die Steinkohle,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 15 November 2003, 15.
  42. “Die Foerderung der Windenergie wird verringert,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 6 November 2003, p. 15; Mathilde Richter, “German Econ, Environment Mins agree Renewable Pwr Support,” Dow Jones Newswires, 5 November 2003, available from http://www.nasdaq.com.
  43. Bechberger and Reiche, 55.
  44. “Kampf gegen Windmuehlen,” Der Spiegel 8 March 1999, available from http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/0,1518,13138,00.html
  45. “Kampf gegen Windmuehlen,” Der Spiegel 8 March 1999, available from http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/0,1518,13138,00.html
  46. “Energie: Luecke im Gesetz,” Der Spiegel June 7, 2003, available from www.spiegel.de/spiegel/0,1518,252822,00.html.
  47. Marian Beise, Juergen Blazejczak, Dietmar Eldler, Klaus Jakob, Martin Jaenicke, Thomas Loew, Ulrich Petschow, and Klaus Rennings, “The Emergence of Lead Markets for Environmental Innovations,” Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltpolitik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, FFU-report 02-2003, p. 12-13.
  48. See, for example: Mischa Bechberger and Danyel Reiche, “Renewable Energy Policy in Germany: Pioneering and Exemplary Regulations,” Energy for Sustainable Development Vol. VIII, No. 1 (March 2004), 47; Thomas B. Johansson and Wim Turkenburg, “Policies fr Renewable Energy in the European Union and Its Member states: An Overview,” Energy for Sustainable Development Vol. VIII, No. 1 (March 2004), 12.
  49. See Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit, “Technologie und Energie: Schluesseltechnologien fuer neue Arbeitsplaetze,” available from http://www.bmwi.de/bmwa/generator/Navigation/Technologie-und-Energie/Energiepolitik/energieforschung,did=7878.html.
  50. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit, “Umweltpolitik: Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen, Nationale und Internationale Entwicklung,” (November 2003), p. 17; Verband Deutscher Elektrizitaetswirtschaft (VDEW), “CO2 Ausstoss der Stromwirtschaft Vermindert,” available from www.strom.de/wysstr/stromwys.nsf.
  51. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit, “Umweltpolitik: Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen, Nationale und Internationale Entwicklung,” (November 2003), pp. 16, 18.
  52. “17 Milliarden Euro fuer die Steinkohle,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 12 November 2003, p. 13.
  53. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit, “Umweltpolitik: Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen, Nationale und Internationale Entwicklung,” (November 2003), 23.
  54. Karin Ibenholt, “Explaining Learning Curves for Wind Power,” Energy Policy 30 (2002), 1181-1189.
  55. See, for example, Leon Clarke, John Weyant, Alicia Birky, and Shawn Peabody, “Modeling the Sources of Advance in the Climate Context,” Global Technology Strategy Project Working Paper 2004-7 PNWD3498.
  56. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit, “Technologie und Energie: Schluesseltechnologien fuer neue Arbeitsplaetze,” available from http://www.bmwi.de/bmwa/generator/Navigation/Technologie-und-Energie/Energiepolitik/energieforschung,did=7878.html.
  57. Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, und Reaktorsicherheit, “Umweltpolitik: Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen, Nationale und Internationale Entwicklung,” (November 2003), 20.
  58. Eberhard Jochem, Reinhard Madlener, and Wilhelm Mannsbart, “Renewable Energy Technology Diffusion: Prospects of the German and Swiss Industry in the World Markets,” Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress VII (2002).
  59. Paul Gipe, “German Electricity Feed Law Policy Overview,” available from http://www.wind-works.org
  60. Deutscher Bundestag, “Bericht ueber die Bestandsaufnahme durch die Deutsche Energie-Agentur (dena) ueber den Handlungsbedarf bei der Foerderung des Exportes erneuerbarer Energie-Technologien,” Drucksache 15/1862 (November 2003).
  61. Markus Kurdziel und Daniel Becker, “Effizienz durch Synergie,” Energiewirtschaftlichen Tagesfragen 54 (2004), 446-448.
  62. Deutscher Bundestag, “Bericht ueber die Bestandsaufnahme durch die Deutsche Energie-Agentur (dena) ueber den Handlungsbedarf bei der Foerderung des Exportes erneuerbarer Energie-Technologien,” Drucksache 15/1862 (November 2003).